Knowledge of the Babylonian zodiac is also reflected in the Hebrew Bible ; E. Bullinger interpreted the creatures appearing in the book of Ezekiel as the middle signs of the 4 quarters of the Zodiac,   with the Lion as Leo , the Bull is Taurus , the Man representing Aquarius and the Eagle representing Scorpio. Martin and others have argued that the arrangement of the tribes around the Tabernacle reported in the Book of Numbers corresponded to the order of the Zodiac, with Judah , Reuben , Ephraim , and Dan representing the middle signs of Leo, Aquarius, Taurus, and Scorpio, respectively.
Such connections were taken up by Thomas Mann , who in his novel Joseph and His Brothers attributes characteristics of a sign of the zodiac to each tribe in his rendition of the Blessing of Jacob. Hellenistic astrology derived in part from Babylonian and Egyptian astrology. The Dendera zodiac , a relief dating to ca. The earliest extant Greek text using the Babylonian division of the zodiac into 12 signs of 30 equal degrees each is the Anaphoricus of Hypsicles of Alexandria fl. Hipparchus's lost work on precession never circulated very widely until it was brought to prominence by Ptolemy,  and there are few explanations of precession outside the work of Ptolemy until late Antiquity, by which time Ptolemy's influence was widely established.
The Hindu zodiac uses the sidereal coordinate system , which makes reference to the fixed stars. The Hindu zodiac, being sidereal, does not maintain this seasonal alignment, but there are still similarities between the two systems. The Hindu zodiac signs and corresponding Greek signs sound very different, being in Sanskrit and Greek respectively, but their symbols are nearly identical.
This included magical uses of the zodiac, as found, e.
Mughal king Jahangir issued an attractive series of coins in gold and silver depicting the twelve signs of the Zodiac. An example of the use of signs as astronomical coordinates may be found in the Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris for the year The "Longitude of the Sun" columns show the sign represented as a digit from 0 to and including 11 , degrees from 0 to 29, minutes, and seconds. The zodiac symbols are Early Modern simplifications of conventional pictorial representations of the signs, attested since Hellenistic times.
But note that the Sanskrit and the name equivalents after c.
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Also, the "English translation" isn't usually used by English speakers. Latin names are standard English usage. The zodiacal signs are distinct from the constellations associated with them, not only because of their drifting apart due to the precession of equinoxes but also because the physical constellations take up varying widths of the ecliptic, so the Sun is not in each constellation for the same amount of time. The zodiacal signs are an abstraction from the physical constellations, and each represent exactly one 12th of the full circle, or the longitude traversed by the Sun in about The path of the Sun passes through 13 constellations recognized by ancient Babylonian, Greek, and Roman astronomers including in Ptolemy 's Almagest   and the modern International Astronomical Union.
Because the Babylonians had a month lunar calendar, they chose and divided up the year evenly. The 13th was left out: Ophiuchus , the bottom part of which interjects between Scorpio and Sagittarius.
Occasionally this difference between the astronomical constellations and the astrological signs is mistakenly reported in the popular press as a "change" to the list of traditional signs by some astronomical body like the IAU, NASA , or the Royal Astronomical Society. For example, in drawing a distinction between astrology and scientific astronomy, NASA notes that "No one has shown that astrology can be used to predict the future or describe what people are like based on their birth dates.
Some "parazodiacal" constellations are also touched by the paths of the planets, leading to counts of up to 25 "constellations of the zodiac". Some other constellations are also mythologically associated with the zodiacal ones: Piscis Austrinus , The Southern Fish, is attached to Aquarius.
In classical maps, it swallows the stream poured out of Aquarius' pitcher, but perhaps it formerly just swam in it. Aquila , The Eagle, was possibly associated with the zodiac by virtue of its main star, Altair. The following table compares the Gregorian dates on which the Sun enters:. The theoretical beginning of Aries is the moment of vernal equinox , and all other dates shift accordingly.
The precise Gregorian times and dates vary slightly from year to year as the Gregorian calendar shifts relative to the tropical year. Except for and , the vernal equinox has started on 20 March since , and is projected to until Because the Earth's axis is at an angle, some signs take longer to rise than others, and the farther away from the equator the observer is situated, the greater the difference. Thus, signs are spoken of as "long" or "short" ascension.
The zodiac system was developed in Babylonia , some 2, years ago, during the " Age of Aries ". Contemporary use of the coordinate system is presented with the choice of interpreting the system either as sidereal , with the signs fixed to the stellar background , or as tropical , with the signs fixed to the point vector of the Sun at the March equinox.
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Western astrology takes the tropical approach, whereas Hindu astrology takes the sidereal one. This results in the originally unified zodiacal coordinate system drifting apart gradually, with a clockwise westward precession of 1. For the tropical zodiac used in Western astronomy and astrology, this means that the tropical sign of Aries currently lies somewhere within the constellation Pisces " Age of Pisces ".
The sidereal coordinate system takes into account the ayanamsa , ayan meaning transit or movement , and amsa meaning small part , i. It is unclear when Indians became aware of the precession of the equinoxes, but Bhaskara 2 's 12th-century treatise Siddhanta Shiromani gives equations for measurement of precession of equinoxes, and says his equations are based on some lost equations of Suryasiddhanta plus the equation of Munjaala. The discovery of precession is attributed to Hipparchus around BC.
Ptolemy quotes from Hipparchus' now lost work entitled "On the Displacement of the Solstitial and Equinoctial Points" in the seventh book of his 2nd century astronomical text, Almagest , where he describes the phenomenon of precession and estimates its value.
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The principle of the vernal point acting as the first degree of the zodiac for Greek astronomers is also described in the 1st century BC astronomical text of Geminus of Rhodes. Geminus explains that Greek astronomers of his era associate the first degrees of the zodiac signs with the two solstices and the two equinoxes, in contrast to the older Chaldean Babylonian system, which placed these points within the zodiac signs. Ptolemy also demonstrates that the principle of the tropical zodiac was well known to his predecessors within his astrological text, the Tetrabiblos , where he explains why it would be an error to associate the regularly spaced signs of the seasonally aligned zodiac with the irregular boundaries of the visible constellations:.
These events can be useful, for example, to estimate the cross-sectional dimensions of a minor planet , or check a star for a close companion. The Sun's placement upon the vernal equinox, which occurs annually around 21 March, defines the starting point for measurement, the first degree of which is historically known as the " first point of Aries ". Zodiac signs have never been used to determine the boundaries of astronomical constellations that lie in the vicinity of the zodiac, which are, and always have been, irregular in their size and shape. The use of the zodiac as a means to determine astronomical measurement remained the main method for defining celestial positions by Western astronomers until the Renaissance, at which time preference moved to the equatorial coordinate system , which measures astronomical positions by right ascension and declination rather than the ecliptic-based definitions of celestial longitude and celestial latitude.
Since August a series of eclipses has occurred in Leo or Aquarius, which is why, if you belong to these two signs you have had such an up and down time of it. This eclipse series has a distinctly royal aura to it, especially regarding the British Crown, being in play during the toppling of the English monarchy in But with one eclipse yet to come 21 January there could be much, much more to the royal story before the end of In a nutshell, is a year to make the most of everything we have and everything that comes to us.
It is also a year that we should liken to autumn: a beautiful season but one that precedes winter; and in keeping with nature, we should store our resources in preparation for a lean and mean period. With Saturn and Uranus in harmony you can go forward with confidence in the knowledge that you are building lasting structures. Embrace new systems, new pathways and diversify.
All that work and painstaking effort over the years needs to pay off in , not ! And parenthood and grand-parenthood are on the agenda for some — in a few cases, very unexpectedly.
Mid-April, early June and Mid-September have the most to offer in the way of enterprising new starts. And never forget: an ending of any sort always precedes a beginning. So, embrace it. Neptune asks nothing less than we give ourselves over to love. There can be no guarantees it will last, but one thing is guaranteed it will change your life. The 8thth September birthdays are front of the queue when it comes to falling madly and deeply but also who run the risk of being let down.
Early April is a premium time for finding love and putting a ring on it; mid-September another. Investment and borrowings should be easier to come by and some Virgos will benefit from a gift or inheritance. Often someone who prefers to work behind the scenes, if you know you can run an organization or take a starring role, put yourself forward; people will take you seriously. Despite your reservations and contrary to appearances, you are in pole position for a desired job.
You cannot prevent people from taking actions that you do not like, but you have the capacity to come back twice as strong. There is no time like the present. Today, Sagittarius benefits practicality, meticulousness and modesty. This is not the time to flaunt your authority. It does not hurt to listen to sensible advice when they come from a loyal assistant or an experienced professional. For help, it is best to contact a reliable, familiar service or trained personnel. If you are an entrepreneur, it is worth considering returning one of the former employees to the staff.
View: Sagittarius Monthly Horoscope. The advice of an old friend or colleague may influence your decisions — but it is also possible that you yourself will act as an indispensable consultant in a difficult matter and this will determine your future. Your advantage in any conversation will be professionalism, experience and restraint. View: Capricorn Monthly Horoscope. Today, Aquarius is better to adhere to the rules of communication, to observe saving formalities, to avoid gullibility. Restraint does not interfere even at home, for example, on a family council.
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It is advisable not to be late, to have the necessary papers with you, to use sound arguments. In complex cases, it is safer to keep intriguing silence. Care is needed when discussing topics related to status and housing. View: Aquarius Monthly Horoscope.